Aleksandr İvanoviç Herzen’in Hayatı

Tolstoy’un, “parlaklık ve derinlikle ışıldamanın nadir bir birleşmesi” olarak nitelediği, yaşamı hep mücadele içinde ve hep gerçeğin peşinde koşturmakla geçen devrimci demokrat, materyalist filozof, yazar ve yayıncı olan Aleksandr İvanoviç Herzen, Rusya’da sosyalist Narodnik köylü hareketinin kurucularındandır.
Aleksandr İvanoviç Herzen (?????????? ????????? ???????), 6 Nisan 1812?de Moskova?da doğdu. Yapıtlarında İskender takma adını kullanır. Bir Rus Soylusuyla bir alman çocuk bakıcısının evlilik dışı çocuğu olduğu bilinir. Üniversitedeyken sosyalist ve şair olan Nikolay Platinovic Ogarev ile tanışır. Böylece sosyalist akımdan o da etkilenir. Sahip olduğu sosyalist fikirlerden dolayı 1834?te ?yönetime zarar verici fikirler yaydığı? gerekçesiyle Ogarev ile birlikte önce hapsedilir, sonra sürgüne gönderilir. Moskova’ya yeniden döndükten sonra felsefi denemesi (Bilimde Heves -1843), doğa bilimleri üzerine inceleme kitabı (Doğanın incelenmesi üzerine mektuplar – 1845) , ve siyasal-toplumsal içerikli romanı (Kabahat Kimde? veya Suçlu Kim? ? 1846) adlı eserlerini yayınladı. Kabahat Kimde? adlı romanında geçmişin kalıbında donakalmış ve baskıcı bir toplumun acı çeken, sorumsuz insanlarını anlattı.

Herzen 1847’de Çarlık yönetiminin baskılarından dolayı bir daha geri dönmemek üzere Moskova’dan ayrıldı ve Paris’e yerleşti. Narodizm adıyla bilinen ilk devrimci hareketin kurucusu Alexander Herzen’di. 1848 devrimlerine tanık olan, Avrupa devrimciliğinin başkenti Paris?te ve İtalya?da sürgünken 1850?lerde Mazzini ile yazışan Herzen, 1852?de yerleştiği Londra?da Rus sürgünlerin lideriydi. Marx?ın liberal ve ihtiraslı biri olarak tanımladığı Herzen?i sevmediği, kendisiyle görüşmediği kaydediliyor. Ancak Herzen kendisini Avrupa hayranlığından çok, akıldan ve özgürlükten yana bir tercihi olduğunu ifade ediyordu. 1852?de Londra?ya yerleşen ve kendisi de bir Rus olan Bakunin ile çalışır. Burada gizlilik ilkesiyle çalışmalarına ağırlık verir. 1857?1867 arası yayın yapan gizlice dağıtılan Kolokol (Çan) adlı dergiyi kurarak sürgündeki Rusları Çarlık Rejimine karşı mücadeleye çağırıyordu. Çarlık İktidarının kokuşmuşluğunu öne çıkaran bu dergi Ruslar arasında siyasal bilincin yerleşmesinde önemli etkilerde bulundu.

Herzen?in genç nesil Rus sürgünlerine yakın olmak için karargahını Cenevre?ye taşıma kararı verdiği 1865?te ondan kopar ve İtalya?ya gider. Gitmeden evvel Marx?la yeniden arkadaşlık kurar ve İtalya?da Birinci Enternasyonal için çalışma yapmak konusunda onunla anlaşır. Ama orada kendisini komploculuğa verdiği söylenmektedir. Bu sıralarda ilkin merkezi Cenevre?de bulunan Barış ve Özgürlük Ligası adında uluslararası bir örgütlenmeye katılır. Az sonra bu Liga?nın sol kanadı ile birlikte ayrılır ve Uluslararası Sosyalist Demokrasi İttifakı (veya Sosyalist İttifak) adı altında Birinci Enternasyonal?e katılmak için başvurur. Sonunda 1869?daki Basle Kongresi?nden itibaren Birinci Enternasyonal?e kabul edilir. Bu tarihten itibaren bu kez de kendi görüşlerini hayata geçirmek için İsviçre, Fransa, İspanya ve Avrupa ülkelerindeki Rus sürgünlerin desteği ve kendine özgü yöntemlerle Birinci Enternasyonal?in yönetimini ele geçirmeyi, ona kendi ilkelerini (programını) ve kafasındaki örgüt biçimini (örgütlenmede federasyon ilkesi adı altında savunulan başına buyrukluğu) benimsetmeyi kafasına koyar, tam bir eylem ve girişim özgürlüğü adına Enternasyonalin ulusal seksiyonlarında bölünmelere neden olur.

Avrupa’da düş kırıklığına uğrayan Herzen, umutlarını Rusya’daki devrimci harekete bağladı. Yani sosyalizmin geleceği ona göre Rusya’daydı.
Herzen, tarihsel belirlenimciliğe inanmıyordu. Umutlarını daha çok oluşun yaratıcı gücüne bağlıyordu. Batıcılığa olan zaafına rağmen, Rus köylü geleneğine inancını koruyordu. Köy topluluğunu tarıma dayalı sosyalizmin temeli olarak görüyor ve bu topluluğu Rusya açısından korunması ve geliştirilmesi gereken bir kurum olarak değerlendiriyordu.
Herzen, 21 Ocak 1870?de Paris?te tüberküloz nedeniyle yaşama gözlerini yumdu.
Başlıca yapıtları arasında Kto vinovat (Suçlu Kim?, roman, 1847), Doktor Krunov (uzun öykü¬ler, 1847), Le peuple Russe et le socialisme {Rus Halkı ve Sosyalizm (1855), Biloyei dumi (Geçmiş Üstüne Düşün¬celer, anılar, 1861), vb. sayılabilir.

” Siyasi hürriyetten yoksun bir halk için edebiyat, öfkesinin ve vicdanının çığlıklarını duyacağı biricik kürsüdür. “

Suçlu Kim? Alexandr İvanoviç Herzen
Öteki Yayınevi, Çeviren: Mazlum Beyhan – 310 sayfa, Baskı Tarihi: 2000

Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (?????????? ????????? ???????)
(April 6 [O.S. 25 March] 1812 ? January 21 [O.S. 9 January] 1870) was a major Russian pro-Western writer and thinker known as the “father of Russian socialism”. He is held responsible for creating a political climate leading to the emancipation of the serfs in 1861. His autobiography My Past and Thoughts, written with grace, energy, and ease, is often considered the best specimen of that genre in Russian literature.

Life
Herzen was an illegitimate child of a rich Russian landowner, Ivan Yakovlev, by a young German Protestant woman, Henriette Wilhelmina Luisa Haag from Stuttgart, who gave her son the German surname stemming from the word Herz, i.e., heart. He was born in Moscow shortly before Napoleon’s invasion of Russia and brief occupation of the city. His father, after a personal interview with Napoleon, was allowed to leave Moscow after agreeing to bear a letter from the French to the Russian emperor in St. Petersburg. His family accompanied him to the Russian lines.

A year later the family returned to Moscow, where Herzen passed his youth, remaining there after completing his studies at Moscow University, until 1834. At that time he was arrested and tried on charges of having attended, with other youths, a festival during which verses by Sokolovsky that were uncomplimentary to the tsar, were sung. The special commission appointed to try the youthful culprits found him guilty, and in 1835 he was banished to Vyatka, now Kirov, in northeastern Russia. There he remained until the tsar’s son, Alexander (later to become Alexander II) visited the city, accompanied by the poet Zhukovsky; Herzen was allowed to leave Vyatka for Vladimir, where he was appointed editor of the city’s official gazette.

In 1840 he returned to Moscow, where he met literary critic Vissarion Belinsky, who was strongly influenced by him. Then he obtained a post in the ministry of the interior at St Petersburg; but in consequence of having spoken too frankly about a death due to a police officer’s violence, he was sent to Novgorod, where he led an official life, with the title of state councilor, till 1842. In 1846 his father died, leaving him in his will a very large amount of property. In 1847 he eloped with Natalya Zakharina (Letters from France and Italy, 1847-1851), a cousin, and secretly married her. She accompanied him into emigration, in 1847, never to return to Russia. She bore him four children, before succumbing to tuberculosis in 1852 (Letters from France and Italy, 1847-1851). He was eventually joined in France with lifelong friend Nikolay Ogarev. By then Natalya was in the final stages of tuberculosis, and soon died. Ogarev by then was ailing, suffering from epilepsy, and had a number of strokes. Herzen then began an affair with Ogarev’s common-law wife Natalia Tuchkova, the daughter of the general Tuchkov (the hero of the War of 1812). Tuchkova bore Herzen 3 more children. His assets were frozen because of his emigration, and his existence was precarious for some time. However Baron Rothschild with whom his family had business relationship was able to negotiate the release of Herzen’s assets which Herzen nominally transferred to Rothschild.

From Italy, on hearing of the revolution of 1848, he hastened to Paris, whence he afterwards went to Switzerland. He supported the revolutions of 1848, but was bitterly disillusioned about European socialist movements after their failure. In 1852 he left Geneva for London, where he settled for some years. He promoted socialism, as well as individualism, and argued that the full flowering of the individual could best be realized in a socialist order. In 1864 he returned to Geneva, and after some time went to Paris, where he died on the 21st of January 1870 of tuberculosis complications.

Writings
His literary career began in 1842 with the publication of an essay, in Russian, on Dilettantism in Science, under the pseudonym of Iskander, the Turkish form of his Christian name. His second work, also in Russian, was his Letters on the Study of Nature (1845-46). In 1847 appeared his novel Kto Vinovat? (Who is to blame?), and about the same time were published in Russian periodicals the stories which were afterwards collected and printed in London in 1854, under the title of Prervannye Razskazy (Interrupted Tales). In 1850 two works appeared, translated from the Russian manuscript, From Another Shore and Lettres de France et d’Ilalie. In French appeared also his essay Du Developpement des idées revolutionnaires en Russie, and his Memoirs, which, after being printed in Russian, were translated under the title of Le Monde russe et la Revolution (3 vols., 1860-1862), and were in part translated into English as My Exile to Siberia (2 vols., 1855).

From a literary point of view his first important work is Who is to blame?, a story describing how the domestic happiness of a young tutor, who marries the unacknowledged daughter of a Russian sensualist of the old type, dull, ignorant and genial, is troubled by a Russian sensualist of the new school, intelligent, accomplished and callous, without there being any possibility of saying who is most to be blamed for the tragic ending.

Free Russian Press
But it was as a political writer that Herzen gained the vast reputation which he at one time enjoyed. Having founded in London his Free Russian Press, of the fortunes of which, during ten years, he gave an interesting account in a book published (in Russian) in 1863, he issued from it a great number of Russian works, all levelled against the system of government prevailing in Russia. Some of these were essays, such as his Baptized Property, an attack on serfdom; others were periodical publications, the Polyarnaya Zvyezda (or Polar Star), the Kolokol (or Bell), and the Golosa iz Rossii (or Voices from Russia). The Kolokol soon obtained an immense circulation, and exercised an extraordinary influence.

As the first independent Russian political publisher Herzen began publishing The Polar Star, a review which appeared infrequently and was later joined by the The Bell in 1857, a frequent journal issued between 1857 and 1867 at Herzen’s personal expense. Both publications acquired great influence immediately by illegal circulation in Russian territory; it was said the Emperor himself read them. Both publications extended Herzen a genuine influence in Russia by reporting from a liberal perspective about the incompetence of the Tsar and the Russian bureaucracy.

Writing in 1857 Herzen became excited by the possibility of social change under Alexander II, ?A new Life is unmistakably boiling up in Russia, even the government is being carried away by it?.[1] Herzen used his skill for popular writing to expose the injustices of the ruling elite. These journals would cement Herzen’s position as a Russian revolutionary thinker.

Herzen fought a propaganda war through the journals that had the constant goal of attaining individual liberty for Russians. Herzen understood the competing claims to power and was aware of the fundamental failings of the revolutionary doctrines that guided the 1848 revolutionary failures. Herzen wrote of the inhumanity of the ruling monarchies of Europe but was also aware of the excesses that were perpetrated by revolutionary governments. Herzen constantly fought for social change and felt his journals would contribute to the winds of change,

?The storm is approaching, it is impossible to be mistaken about that. Revolutionaries and Reactionaries are at one about that. All men’s heads are going round; a weighty question, a question of life and death, lies heavy on men’s chests?[2]

Herzen had an outlook which meant he could not trust any ruling government, and he believed in the individual’s right to make their own choices, with minimal state intervention.

For three years the Russian Free Press went on printing without selling a single copy, and scarcely being able to get a single copy introduced into Russia; so when at last a bookseller bought ten shillings worth of Baptized Property, the half-sovereign was set aside by the surprised editors in a special place of honor. But the death of the emperor Nicholas in 1855 produced an complete change. Herzen’s writings, and the journals he edited, were smuggled wholesale into Russia, and their words resounded throughout the country, as well as all over Europe. Their influence grew. Evil deeds long hidden, evil-doers who had long prospered, were suddenly dragged into light and disgrace. His bold and vigorous language aptly expressed the thoughts which had long been secretly stirring in Russian minds, and were now beginning to find a timid utterance at home.

1855 gave Herzen reason to be optimistic; Alexander II had ascended the throne and reforms seemed possible. The Bell broke the story that the government was considering serf emancipation in July 1857, also adding that the government lacked the ability to resolve the issue. Herzen urged the Tsarist regime ‘Onward, onward’ towards reform in The Polar Star in 1856, yet by 1858 full serf emancipation had not been achieved. Herzen grew inpatient with reform and by May 1858 The Bell had restarted its campaign to comprehensively emancipate the serfs. Once Serf emancipation was achieved in 1861 The Bell’s campaign changed to ‘Liberty and Land’, a program that tried to rally the support gathered by the emancipation into solid political action to achieve further social change in support of serf rights.

For some years his influence in Russia was a living force, the circulation of his writings was a vocation zealously pursued. Stories tell how on one occasion a merchant, who had bought several cases of sardines at Nizhny Novgorod, found that they contained forbidden print instead of fish, and at another time a fake copy of the Kolokol was printed for the emperor’s special use, in which a telling attack upon a leading statesman, which had appeared in the genuine number, was omitted.

At length the sweeping changes introduced by Alexander II greatly diminished the need for, and appreciation of, Herzen’s assistance in the work of reform. The freedom he had demanded for the serfs was granted, the law-courts he had so long denounced were remodelled, trial by jury was established, liberty was to a great extent conceded to the press. It became clear that Herzen’s special position was gone. When the Polish insurrection of 1863 broke out, and he pleaded the insurgents’ cause, his reputation in Russia received its death-blow. From that time it was only with the revolutionary party that he was in full accord.

British Exile 1852 – 1864
Alexander Herzen experienced twelve years in exile. His exile writings were a product of his oppressive experiences in Russia and of the failed 1848 revolutions. Herzen had little revolutionary success prior to British exile. However, during this period Herzen did not become disillusioned with revolutionary social change. Herzen used exile as an opportunity to advance and refine his own understanding of Russia as he became a populist political commentator. The failed 1848 revolutions would shape and guide Herzen in exile with the effects constantly reappearing in his exile writings to form his own ideological doctrines.

In 1852 Herzen arrived in Britain where he would reside until 1864. Herzen would arrive disillusioned with the 1848 revolutions but not disillusioned with revolutionary thought. Herzen had always been a revolutionary thinker admiring the French Revolution and broadly adopting its values. Early Herzen writings viewed the French Revolution as the end of history, the final stage in social development of a society based on humanism and harmony. Through his early life Herzen saw himself as a revolutionary radical called to fight the political oppression of Nicholas I of Russia. Essentially Herzen fought against modernism’s cruel inhumanity and Christian hypocrisy, fighting for individual self-expression without threat from the state. These foundations would underpin Herzen’s exile writings of individual freedom in a communal setting supported by a strong state.

Revolutionary failures coupled with the personal tragedies of his wife, children’s and mother’s deaths drove Herzen to Britain, as Herzen fell into emotional despair for several years. From London he found his despair had revived new energy for political and literary work to help the Russian peasantry that he idolised. Herzen became critical of those 1848 revolutionaries that gave in, ?They had gone thither, so revolted by the Reaction after 1848, so exasperated by everything European, that they hastened on to Kansas or California?.[3] Herzen found a new desire to influence and win the appreciation of his countrymen as he established the Russian Printing Press. Unlike Herzen’s history of political activism in continental Europe, Herzen remained a writer alone during his British exile, Herzen valued English political freedom but found it unnecessary to admire little else as they did that themselves.

In London he hired Malwida von Meysenbug to give an education to his daughters. In 1862, Malwida von Meysenbug went to Italy with Olga, his daughter. Meysenbug would later become an acquaintance of Friedrich Nietzsche, while Olga married Gabriel Monodin 1873.

Russian Radicals and Liberals view of Herzen
Herzen drew criticism from both liberals who were against violence and from radicals who thought Herzen was too soft.[4] Liberals led by Chicherin and Kavelin believed individual freedom would be achieved through the rationalisation of social relations. Their ‘etatist’ variety of liberalism was opposed by Herzen as it supported the existing social order, this view supposed Russian society would magically evolve to an ideal state based on a Hegelian view of reason. They believed the revolutionaries would merely postpone the establishment of the ideal state, while Herzen thought that, on the contrary, they were blind to historical reality. Herzen would always reject grand narratives such as a predestined position for a society to arrive at, and his writings in exile promoted small-scale communal living with the protection of individual liberty by a non-interventionist government.

Herzen aggravated Russian radicals by appearing too moderate. Radicals such as Chernyshevsky and Dobrolyubov wanted more commitment towards violent revolution from Herzen, and to withdraw any hope in the reformist Tsar. Further, radicals asked Herzen to use The Bell as a mouthpiece for violent radical revolution, however Herzen rejected these requests and other requests to place himself at the head of an underground movement seeking violent revolutionary change. Herzen was still scared by the complete failures of the 1848 revolutions, and argued the Russian Radicals were not united and strong enough to seek successful political change, stating ?You want happiness, I suppose? I daresay you do! Happiness has to be conquered. If you are strong, take it. If you are weak, hold your tongue?.[5] Herzen feared the new revolutionary government would merely replace the dictatorship with another dictatorship. Herzen noted the radicals’ proclamations showed little ideological similarity to his own ideals.

The radicals describe Herzen as a liberal for not wanting immediate change, but Herzen rejects their pleas and argues for gradual change that involves a total change in the type of government at a pace that will ensure success. Here again Herzen is displaying his experience of the 1848 revolutions, Herzen becomes a hesitant liberal scared to make a wrong move, wanting social change that is assured not to backfire. Herzen briefly joined with other Russian liberals such as Kavelin to promote the peasant ‘awakening’ in Russia.[6] Herzen continues to use The Bell as an outlet to promote unity with all sections of the Russian society behind a demand for a national parliament. However his hope as acting as a uniting force were ended by the Polish revolt of 1863, when the liberals’ support for Tsarist revenge against the Poles ended Herzen’s link with them. This breach resulted in The Bell’s readership declining and The Bell ceased publication in 1867. Herzen acknowledged that the closure of The Bell symbolised the failure of the Russian revolutionary movement and by his death in 1870 Herzen was almost forgotten.

Influence in the 19th and 20th century
Herzen was a populist writer as he supported the common person’s interest and fought against the aristocracy that ruled 19th Century Russia.[7] The rise in populism by 1880 led to a favorable reevaluation of the writings of Herzen, as he reappeared as the heroic creator of the movement. The rights of Serfs made popular by Herzen’s exile writings would become the most important issues facing the Russian social structure, Herzen would side with the agrarian collectivist model of social structure. This choice was a direct result from Herzen’s experience of the 1848 revolutions whereby he found wealth was concentrated in too few hands despite changing governments.

Alongside populism Herzen will be remembered for his rejection of corrupt government of any political persuasion, and for his support for individual rights. A Hegelian in his youth, this translated into no specific theory or single doctrine dominating his thought.[8] No single interpretation of life or schematic theory for social well-being was adopted by Herzen, who recognised these theoretical solutions had no positive real-world results. Herzen came to believe the complex questions of society could not be answered and Russians must live for the moment and not a cause, essentially life is an end in itself. Herzen found his solutions to be a dialectic compromise whereby he would remain unattached to any formal doctrine but would embrace values that are common to all. Herzen found greater understanding from not committing himself to one extreme but rather lived impartially and objectively enabling him to equally criticise competing ideologies. Herzen believed grand doctrines ultimately result in enslavement, sacrifice and tyranny.

Herzen was a hero of the 20th century philosopher Isaiah Berlin. The words of Herzen that Berlin repeated most insistently were those condemning the sacrifice of human beings on the altar of abstractions, the subordination of the realities of individual happiness or unhappiness in the present to glorious dreams of the future. Berlin, like Herzen, believed that ?the end of life is life itself?, and that each life and each age should be regarded as its own end and not as a means to some future goal.

Tolstoy himself declared that he had never met another man “with so rare a combination of scintillating brilliance and depth”. Berlin called Herzen’s autobiography “one of the great monuments to Russian literary and psychological genius.?.a literary masterpiece to be placed by the side of the novels of his contemporaries and countrymen, Tolstoy, Turgenev, Dostoevsky …”

Russian Thinkers (The Hogarth Press, 1978) a collection of Berlin’s essays in which Herzen features, was the inspiration for Tom Stoppard’s The Coast of Utopia, a trilogy of plays performed at London’s National Theatre in 2002 and at New York’s Lincoln Center in 2006-2007. Set against the background of the early development of Russian socialist thought, the Revolutions of 1848 and later exile, the plays examine the lives and intellectual development of, among other Russians, the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin, the literary critic Vissarion Belinsky, the novelist Ivan Turgenev and Alexander Herzen himself, whose character and humanism come to dominate the plays.

Works
* The Russian People and Socialism (1848)
* From the Other Shore (1848 – 1850)
* Letters from France and Italy (1852)
* My Past and Thoughts: The Memoirs of Alexander Herzen (1868)

Notes
1. ^ A. Herzen., ?Another Variation on an Old Theme, A Letter to X (I.S. Turgenev?. (1857). in The Memoirs of Alexander Herzen. Vol IV. Chatto and Windus. London (1968). pp 1561.
2. ^ A. Herzen., ?The Russian people and Socialism. A Letter to Michelet? (1851). in The Memoirs of Alexander Herzen. Vol IV. Chatto and Windus. London (1968). pp 1649.
3. ^ A. Herzen., ?Ends and Beginnings: Letter to I.S. Turgenev?. (1862). in The Memoirs of Alexander Herzen. Vol IV. Chatto and Windus. London (1968). pp 1683.
4. ^ Kelly, ?A Glowing Footprint?: Herzen Proudon, and the role of the Intellectual Revolutionary, Modern Intellectual History. (2005), 2: 179-205.
5. ^ A. Herzen., ?Bazarov Once More. Letter I?. (1868). in The Memoirs of Alexander Herzen. Vol IV. Chatto and Windus. London (1968). pp 1753.
6. ^ D. Offord., Portraits of Early Russian Liberals. (1985). Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. p. 200.
7. ^ Venturi, F., Roots of Revolution. A History of the Populist and Socialist Movements in Nineteenth Century Russia. (1960). Weidenfeld and Nicolson. London. p. 4.
8. ^ I. Berlin., Russian Thinkers. (1979). The Hogarth Press. London. p. 189.

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?????? ?????? ???????, ?????? ? ?????? ? ?????????? ?? ???????. ? ????? ?????????? ???????? ?. ? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ??????-?????????????? ?????????, ? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????????. ? ???????????? ?. ???????? ??????? ? ??? ?????????? «????????? ???????», ?? ????????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????, ? ???????. ??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ????? ????? ? ???? ???????? ??????; ?????? ??????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ??????, ???????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ??????????, ?????? ??????? ?????. ???????? ???? ?????????, ??????, ???????? ?????; ??? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? (??? ??? ????? ?? ????????????? ??????????) ? ?????? ???????? ???????? (????? ????????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ? ?????? ??????, ? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ????????). ? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?. ? ??????? ????????, ?????????????? ????? ? ??????, ???????????? ????????? ????? ? ????????, ???????? ? ??.????? ??????? ?????? ?????, ??????, ???????; ????????? ?? ???????? ? ????????? ??????, ?????? ?????????, ???????, ?????????; ??????? ?????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????, ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????, ????????? ???? ???-?????? ? ??. ???????????.

??????????? ???????
? 1834 ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ?? ??? ???? ??????????. ?. ??? ?????? ? ?????, ? ?????? ? ?????, ??? ? ????????? ?? ?????? ? ?????????? ???????????. ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ? ??????????, ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????????, ??????, ?? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????, ??? ???????, ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????, ? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??? ????? ?????. ? 1840 ?. ?. ???? ????????? ???????????? ? ??????. ????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????????, ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????????. ????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ????????, ????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ????????????; ? ?????-??????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????????????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? («??????????? ?????????» ??????????). ?. ???? ???????? ?? ??????, ?? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???, ????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ? ???????? ????????????????. ????? ???, ? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????????????????, ???????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????, ???????????????? ???? ???????, ????, ?????, ??? ?????; ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???? ???????. ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?. ? ????????, ??????? ?????? ??????????; ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ????????????, ? ????????? ? ?????????? ?? ????? (1844). ???????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????, ??? ??????? ? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ?????, ?? ????????? ?????? ?., ????? ???? «??????? ???????????? ????????????? ??? ????????????? ????? ? ???????? ??????, ? ???????? ?????? ???». ??????????, «??? ???????? ????, ???????? ? ?????? ???????, ? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????». «?? ??????? ?? ??????», ????????? ???? ? ??????, ????????? ???????? ??????, ? ?????? ?????????????? ??????????, ? ?????? ???????. ? 1842 ?., ?., ???????? ??? ? ?????????, ???? ?? ????? ?? ?? ????? ????, ???????? ????????, ?????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????, ? ?????, ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????, ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? (1847).

? ?????????
? 1848 ???? ?????? ???????? ???????, ???????, ????????????? ?????????????, ? ????????? ??????????; ????????? ? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????????. ???????????? ?? ??? ?????? ? ?????????? ? ????. ? ?????? ? ???????? ??????? ???? ????? ?????? «Ami du peuple»; ?? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?. ? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ????????. ???????????, ?? ?????????? ???????, ???????? ???????, ?. ???????? ? ?????????, ??? ? ???????????????; ????? ?? ??? ????????? ????? ? ????? ? ????? 10 ??? ? ???????, ??? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ? 1857. ?. ??????? ???????????? ?????? «???????»[1].

15 ????? 1865 ???? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? «????????»[2] ?? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????? ? ?????????, ??????????? ??????? ?????? ? ???? ??????? ????????. ? ?????? ????? ?? 1865 ???? ???? ??????????? ? «??????? ??????? ??????????»[3]. ?????? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ? ???? ?? ????????? ???????, ???????? ? 1865 ???? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??????.

9 (21) ?????? 1870 ???? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????, ???? ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????.

???????????? ? ???????????????? ????????????
???????????? ???????????? ?. ???????? ??? ? 30-? ?????. ? «??????» ?? 30 ??? (II ?.) ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ????? ????????? ? ?????. ?????? ??????, ??????????? ??????????? ????????, ?????. ? «?????????» ?? 1836 ?. («??????»). ? ???? ?? ??????? ????????? «????, ????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????????» ? «???????» (1842). ?? ????????? ????????: «???. ?????? ???????? ????????» ? «??? ?? ??????? ???????? ????????» («???. ???.», 1840-41; ? ???? ???????? ? ???? ???????????? ????????? ???????). ? 1842 ?? 1847 ?. ???????? ? «??. ???.» ? «????????????» ??????: «??????????? ? ?????», «?????????-?????????», «??? ??????», «??????? ? ?????», «?????? ?? ???????? ???????». ????? ?. ????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????, ?????? ?? ?????????????? ?????, ??????????? ?? ?????, ?????? ?? ?????????. ? ?????? «?? ???????? ???????» ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ??????. ????? ?? ?. ????????: «?? ?????? ????? ?????», «?? ?????? ???????», «????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????», «????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?????», «?? ??????? ??????? ???????», «??? ???????», «?????? ???????», «?????? ? ?????????», «???????? ? ????????», «??????? ??????», «?????????? ?????????». ?? ???? ???? ????????????, ???????????? ?????????, ? ?? ??????? ?????, ? ?? ???????????????? ? ??????????? ?????, ? ???????? ??????????: ??????? «?????? ???????», ? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? «?????????? ?????????????», ? ????? «??? ???????», ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? ???????, ???????? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ? ?????. ???????? ????? ?????? ??, ??? ????, ???????????? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ? ???????, ?????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????????????, ?? ????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ???????, ? ??? ? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?? ??????.

?? ????????????, ?????????? ?. ?? ????????, ???????? ?????: ?????? ?? «Avenue Marigny» (?????? ?????????? ? «??????.», ??? ???????????? ??? ????? ?????????: «?????? ?? ??????? ? ??????», ???. 1855 ?.), ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ??????? ? ??????????, ??????????? ?????? ? 1847?1852 ??. ????? ?? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????-??????????? ?????????, ?? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????? ???? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ????????. ???????? ??????? ??????????? ? ? ??????, ? ? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?.: «? ???? ??????» (????????????? ??-??????? «Vom andern Ufer» ????., 1850; ??-??????, ????., 1855; ??-?????., ??????, 1870), ? ??????? ?. ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????? ? ????????? ???? ??????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?. ? 1848?1851 ?. ??????? ??? ???????? ?????? ? ?????: «??????? ????? ? ?????????» ? ????????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ?????????????, ??????? ?????????? ? ????? ????? ?????? ?????. «????? ? ????» ? ??? ????????????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????????????????, ?? ?????? ? ????? ??? ???????????????????? ??????, ????????????-????????? ?????????????, ? ?????????? ?. ?? ?????????? ? ????????? ?? ? ?????? ? ?? ????????.

??? ?????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????, ???, ????????, «?????? ??? ? ??????», «Le peuple Russe et le socialisme», «????? ? ??????», ? ??. ???????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ? ??????????, ?????? ?????????????? ? ?????? 1847?1852 ??. ? ??????????, ????????? ????.

??????????? ??????? ??????? ? ???? ?????????
? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?. ? ? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????, ????? ????? ?. ? ????? ?????????. ?? ?????? ?. ?? ??? ???????? ? ???? ????????? ? ????????????? ??? ?????????????. ??? ???, ?????? ?????, ??????? ?????? ? ????????????? ????????????, ? ???? ???????? ? ??????????????, ???????? ?????? ??????. ???????? ? ??????? ?????, «?????????????», ? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????, ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ? ?. ?? ?? ??????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ???????????????? ? ??? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?? ? ?????, ?? ?????, ?? ?????? ??????. ??????????????? «????? ????» ??????????? ??? ?? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????. ??? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ?????????? ??? ???? ???????? ?????, ? ??????? ????????????? ?????? ?. ?? ??? ????????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????????? 40-? ?????. ? ????????????? ??????????????????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????, ????? ?? ???????? ? ??? ?????? ???? ????????????? ?????? ??????. ??? ?????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????????? ?., ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????????, ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ?., ??? ?. ?. ???????, ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????, ??? ??? «?????????????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????». ??? ???????????????? ??????????, ?. ?????, ??? ???????? ???????????? ???? ????????? ? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????. ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ????????. ?., ?????????? ??? ???, ??? ??????????? ??? ????? ? ???????, ? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ? ??????, ???????? ? ????????????? ???? ? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????. ?????? ? ???, ??? ????????????? ???-?????? ? ?????, ?? ???????? ??? ???? ? ?????????? ????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????, ??????? ?????? ?????????, ????????? ??????? ??????, ?????? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????????. ?????? ?? ????????????? ?. ?????????? ? ???????? ????????. ????? ????? ? ? ??? ??????????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?????. ???? ? ?????? ? ??????? ????? ??????? ?. ?? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????????. ???????, ?. ?? ??????? ??????????? ????, ??? ? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??????????? ????????. ??????? ??????? ???????, ?. ?????????, ??? ? ??????? ????? ????? ????????????, ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ? ????? ?????? ????????. ??????? ????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????, ? ???????? ???? «?????? ???????? ????», ??????????? ? ????????? ????? ????????? ??? ? ???????; «???????? ??????? ? ?????? ? ????? ??????????? ? ????? ???????????????? ??????? ? ?????». ?. ??? ???????, ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ? ????????, ? ??? ??? «????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????», ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????. ???????? ??????????????? ?? ???? ????????, ?. ?????????, ??????, ?? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ? ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ???????????? ? ???????????????. ? ?? ?????? ???????? ?. ?????????? ??????, ????? ??????????????? ????????????? ????????. ???, ?? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????.

???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????
??????? ?. ? ???? ????? ???? ????????. ???????? ???????????? ?. ? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ? ??????????? (?. ?. ?????????, ????. ????????, ?????. ??????? ? ??.). ????????? ??? ???????????? ?. ???? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????????. ?. ?? ??? ????????? ???? ?? ??????? ???????, ???????? ????? ???????? ? ?? ????????? ????????? ????????????? (????. ???., ???. 213?215); ???????????? ?? ???????, ?????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????. ? ?????????? ? «???????» ??????? ????? ??????????? (?????? 3000 ?? ???????? ?? ????? 500).

?????? ???? 9 ?????? (21 ??????) 1870 ?. ? ??????. ????????? ??? ? ????? (???? ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???-?????).

?????? ? ?????-??????????
* 14. – 24.12.1839 ???? – ??? ?. ?. ???????? – ?????????????? ????????, 22;
* 20.05. – 06.1840 ???? – ???????? ?. ?. ??????? ? ???? ??????????? ?????? – ??????? ????????? ?????, 3;
* 06.1840 – 30.06.1841 ???? – ??? ?. ?. ????? – ??????? ??????? ?????, 25, ??. 21;
* 04. – 14.10.1846 ???? – ???????? ?.?. ????????? ? ???????? ? ???? ??????? ???????? – ?????????? ???? ????????, 19.

????????????
???????? ??????: ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????

1. ? Kolokol. ?????????? “??????”, http://www.hrono.ru/organ/rossiya/kolokol.html
2. ? ????????? ????? «????????» ????? 1 ???? 1967 ????.
3. ? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ? ????????? «??????? ??????? ??????????» ?????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????-????????? ??????? ??????????.

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